Certificate of Participation (COP).

A certificate of participation (COP) is a type of debt instrument used by state and local governments in the United States to finance public capital projects. COPs are similar to bonds, but differ in that bonds are issued by governments and COPs are issued by special purpose entities created by governments to finance specific projects. … Read more

Unappropriated Retained Earnings.

Unappropriated retained earnings are the portion of a company’s profits that have not been designated for specific purposes. The board of directors may choose to reinvest these earnings back into the business, distribute them to shareholders as dividends, or use them to pay down debt. Unappropriated retained earnings belong to the shareholders of a company … Read more