# Point-and-Figure (P&F) Chart Definition and Tactics.

A point-and-figure (P&F) chart is a graphical representation of price movements that uses a specific set of rules to filter out changes that are too small to be significant.

P&F charts are used primarily to identify long-term trends, as well as support and resistance levels.

The key elements of a P&F chart are the columns of Xs and Os. A column of Xs represents a period of rising prices, while a column of Os represents a period of falling prices.

The number of rows in each column corresponds to the price change required for a new X or O to be added to the column. For example, if the price move required for a new X is two points, then a column of Xs would be comprised of prices that have risen by two points or more.

P&F charts can be constructed using different rules, but the most common method is to use a fixed box size. For example, a common box size is one point. In this case, a new X would be added to the column whenever the price rises by one point, and a new O would be added whenever the price falls by one point.

P&F charts can also be constructed using a variable box size. In this case, the box size would be based on the volatility of the underlying security.

The advantage of using a P&F chart is that it can filter out a lot of the noise that is present in other types of charts, such as candlestick or bar charts. This noise can make it difficult to identify the underlying trend.

P&F charts are not without their drawbacks, however. One potential problem is that they can lag the market, since they only take into account price changes that meet the specific criteria.

Another potential issue is that they can be susceptible to false breakouts. This happens when the price moves outside of the expected range but then quickly

##### Who invented point and figure charting?

There are various conflicting stories about who invented point and figure charting. Some sources say that it was developed by Charles Dow around 1900, while other sources credit the invention to a stockbroker named Henry Wheeler in 1884.

It's likely that the truth lies somewhere in between these two stories. Point and figure charting was probably developed in the late 1800s, but it's not clear who was responsible for its invention.

#### How do you read price charts?

In order to read price charts, one must first understand what they represent. Price charts are simply a graphical representation of price data over a certain period of time. This data can be represented in many different ways, but the most common are line charts, bar charts, and candlestick charts. Each type of chart has its own advantages and disadvantages, but they all ultimately serve the same purpose.

Line charts are the simplest type of price chart, and only plot the closing price over time. This makes them easy to read and interpret, but they don't provide a lot of information. Bar charts are a bit more complex, and plot the open, high, low, and close for each period. This makes them more informative than line charts, but can also make them more difficult to interpret. Candlestick charts are the most complex type of price chart, and plot the open, high, low, and close for each period, as well as the body (the difference between the open and close). This makes them the most informative type of chart, but also the most difficult to interpret.

Once you've chosen a type of chart, you need to decide what time frame you want to use. The most common time frames are 1 minute, 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 4 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month. The shorter the time frame, the more volatile the data will be, and the longer the time frame, the less volatile the data will be.

Once you've chosen a time frame, you can start reading the price chart. The most important thing to look for is the trend. The trend is simply the direction that the price is moving in over time. Upward trends indicate that the price is increasing, downward trends indicate that the price is decreasing, and sideways trends indicate that the price is not moving much.

Once you've identified the trend, you can start looking for support

What is an ascending triple top breakout? A triple top breakout is a bullish reversal pattern that forms after a prolonged uptrend. It occurs when prices fail to break above a resistance level three times, followed by a breakout above that level. The triple top is considered a strong bullish reversal pattern, as it takes considerable effort to push prices above a resistance level three times.

How is point and figure chart useful to investors? A point and figure chart is a charting technique used by technical analysts to predict future price movements of a security. The point and figure technique is based on the premise that prices move in trends, and that these trends can be identified and used to make predictions about future price movements.

The point and figure chart is constructed by plotting a series of Xs and Os on a graph. The Xs represent periods of rising prices, and the Os represent periods of falling prices. The chart is then used to identify patterns and trends, which can be used to make predictions about future price movements.

There are a number of advantages to using point and figure charts:

1. They are easy to construct and interpret.

2. They can be used to identify both short-term and long-term trends.

3. They are not affected by the noise that can often be found in other types of charts (such as candlestick charts).

4. They can be used to make predictions about price movements in both rising and falling markets.

#### What is a high pole warning in point and figure?

A high pole warning in point and figure charting is a sign that the current price action is overextended and that a reversal may be imminent. A high pole is formed when the price moves up or down by more than three points in a single column. This is considered a warning sign because it indicates that the current price action is not sustainable and that a reversal is likely.