Sequence risk is the risk that the order in which investment returns are received will affect the overall outcome. It is a type of investment risk that is often overlooked, but can have a significant impact on portfolio performance.

For example, imagine two investors who each have a portfolio of $100,000. Investor A experiences 10% returns in each of the first three years, followed by a 5% loss in the fourth year. Investor B experiences 5% losses in each of the first three years, followed by a 10% gain in the fourth year. Both investors end up with the same final portfolio value of $107,000.

However, the order of returns makes a big difference in how much money is available to reinvest. Investor A has $110,000 to reinvest in the fourth year, while Investor B has only $95,000. As a result, Investor A will likely end up with a higher final portfolio value than Investor B.

Sequence risk is often a factor in retirement planning. For example, retirees who experience a sequence of losses early in retirement may have difficulty maintaining their standard of living. Conversely, retirees who experience a sequence of gains may be able to enjoy a higher standard of living than they otherwise would have.

There are a few ways to manage sequence risk. One is to build up a cash reserve that can be used to cover expenses during periods of market uncertainty. Another is to invest in a mix of assets that have the potential to perform differently in different market conditions.

No matter what approach is taken, it is important to be aware of the impact that sequence risk can have on portfolio performance.

What is the expected return for your retirement portfolio? The expected return for your retirement portfolio will be the sum of the expected returns for each individual asset in the portfolio, weighted by its allocation. For example, if your portfolio is 60% stocks and 40% bonds, and the expected return for stocks is 10% and the expected return for bonds is 5%, then your portfolio's expected return would be (0.6 x 10%) + (0.4 x 5%) = 7%.

#### How can sequencing risk be avoided?

There are a few key ways to avoid sequencing risk in retirement planning:

1. Diversify your portfolio across a variety of asset classes. This will help to reduce the risk that a sudden drop in the value of one asset class will have a significant impact on your overall retirement savings.

2. Make sure that you have a good mix of stocks and bonds. This will help to protect your portfolio from sudden changes in the stock market.

3. Use dollar-cost averaging when investing in stocks. This technique involves investing a fixed amount of money into a stock at regular intervals. This helps to smooth out the impact of any sudden changes in the stock price.

4. Review your investment portfolio on a regular basis. This will help you to spot any potential problems early and take action to correct them.

5. Seek professional advice if you are unsure about anything. A financial advisor can help you to create a retirement plan that is tailored to your individual needs and goals. Why is sequence of returns important? The order in which you experience returns on your investment can have a significant impact on your retirement savings. This is because the timing of your returns affects how much money you have to reinvest and how long your money has to compound.

For example, let's say you invest $100,000 and experience the following returns over a 10-year period:

Year 1: 10%

Year 2: -5%

Year 3: 15%

Year 4: -10%

Year 5: 20%

If you experience these returns in the order listed above, your investment will be worth $146,000 at the end of Year 5. However, if you experience the returns in the reverse order, your investment will be worth $122,000 at the end of Year 5.

This illustrates the importance of sequence of returns. While the average return over the 10-year period is the same in both scenarios, the order in which you experience those returns can have a significant impact on the value of your investment.

This is especially important to consider when planning for retirement, as you may need to withdraw money from your investment during periods of negative returns. If you experience a period of negative returns early in retirement, it can have a significant impact on the longevity of your retirement savings. What is an example of sequencing risk? Sequencing risk is the risk that an investor will experience different returns on their investments over time. For example, an investor who invests in a stock market index fund may experience different returns in different years. In some years, the stock market may go up, and the investor may experience positive returns. In other years, the stock market may go down, and the investor may experience negative returns.

Sequencing risk can have a significant impact on an investor's ability to retire successfully. For example, an investor who retires during a year when the stock market is down may have a difficult time meeting their financial goals.

There are a few ways that investors can manage sequencing risk. One way is to diversify their investments across different asset classes. Another way is to invest in a mix of stocks and bonds. What is rising equity glide path? The rising equity glide path is a strategy for investing in stocks and other equity securities that aims to minimize risk while maximizing returns. The basic idea is to start with a portfolio that is heavily weighted towards stocks, and then gradually shift the mix towards more conservative investments as the investor approaches retirement. The hope is that this will allow the investor to capture the gains from the stock market while minimizing the risk of losses in the event of a market downturn.

There are a number of different ways to implement a rising equity glide path, and there is no single right or wrong way to do it. Some investors may choose to start with a portfolio that is 70% stocks and 30% bonds, and then shift the mix to 50% stocks and 50% bonds over the course of 20 years. Others may choose to start with a portfolio that is 90% stocks and 10% bonds, and then shift the mix to 60% stocks and 40% bonds over the course of 10 years. Ultimately, the choice of how to implement a rising equity glide path will depend on the individual investor's goals, risk tolerance, and time horizon.