The realized yield is the actual return on an investment, after taking into account all of the cash flows associated with the investment. This includes any interest payments, dividends, and capital gains or losses. The realized yield can be different from the stated yield, which is the advertised rate of return on an investment. Will the actual realized yields be equal to the expected yields if interest rates change? No, the actual realized yields will not be equal to the expected yields if interest rates change. This is because the expected yields are based on the current interest rates, and if interest rates change, the expected yields will also change.

What is the difference between realized return and expected return? Realized return is the actual return that an investor earns on an investment over a specified period of time. Expected return is the return that an investor anticipates earning on an investment over a specified period of time.

There are a number of factors that can impact an investment's realized return, such as inflation, taxes, and fees. Additionally, realized return can be affected by the timing of when an investment is made and sold. For example, if an investor buys a stock and then sells it immediately, they will only realize the return if the stock price has increased in that short period of time. If the stock price has decreased, the investor will realize a loss.

Investors typically use expected return as a metric when making investment decisions. This is because expected return takes into account all of the potential outcomes of an investment, not just the most recent price movement. By contrast, realized return only captures the actual return that was achieved.

There are a number of methods that can be used to calculate expected return, such as using historical data or conducting a Monte Carlo simulation. Ultimately, expected return is an estimate, and there is no guarantee that an investment will actually achieve that return.

To summarize, realized return is the actual return that an investor earns on an investment, while expected return is the return that an investor anticipates earning. Expected return takes into account all of the potential outcomes of an investment, while realized return only captures the actual return that was achieved. Why is current yield higher than yield to maturity? The current yield is the yield you would receive if you held the bond until it matured and collected all of the periodic interest payments. However, the yield to maturity is the yield you would receive if you bought the bond today and held it until it matured.

The reason the current yield is higher than the yield to maturity is because the current yield only takes into account the interest payments that you would receive if you held the bond until it matured. It does not take into account the capital gains or losses you would incur if you sold the bond before it matured.

The yield to maturity, on the other hand, takes into account both the interest payments you would receive as well as the capital gains or losses you would incur if you sold the bond before it matured. Therefore, the yield to maturity is always lower than the current yield. How are bonds doing in 2022? Assuming you are referring to US bonds, they are doing quite well. The 10-year yield is down to 1.75% and the 30-year yield is down to 2.50%. This is due to the continued quantitative easing by the Fed and the overall low interest rate environment. In addition, bond prices have been supported by strong demand from foreign central banks and investors.

#### How do you calculate realized return?

Realized return is the return that an investor actually earns on an investment over a particular period of time. This return is calculated by subtracting the original purchase price from the final sale price of the investment, and then dividing that figure by the original purchase price. For example, if an investor buys a bond for $1,000 and then sells it for $1,200, the realized return would be 20%.

It's important to note that realized return is different from expected return, which is the return that an investor anticipates earning on an investment. While expected return is based on factors such as the current market conditions and the investor's own assessment of risk, realized return is the actual return that is earned once the investment is sold.