Certification is the procedure by which an authorized body validates certain aspects (quality, fidelity, etc.) of an organization, institution or person.
In order to obtain the certification, certain conditions or requirements must be met, which will be evaluated by the corresponding body. It will only be valid if the certifying entity is absolutely independent and impartial.
The receipt or document that accredits the certification is the so-called certificate. The certificate relates to the competencies approved by the body in terms of what is evaluable and for which said certification has been obtained.
Two types of certification must be distinguished: effective and symbolic. The effective certification is the one that is granted to someone or some institution with the necessary validity for having passed a process (in the case of an ESO degree, Baccalaureate, etc ...). On the other hand, the symbolic certification does not grant a certificate for the process that has been passed since it does not require it, only a mention (in the case of a degree or course that has no academic validity).
Among the most common certificates that we can find are: academic certificates (which assess the level of studies or learning acquired); quality certificates (they evaluate how good something is -process, product, idea, etc.-, identified many times with aquality seal); production certificates (they try to evaluate the possibility of producing certain products, offering services, etc.) or identity certificates.