The concept of decentralization refers to the process that seeks the territorial development of a country, to end the differences between the different autonomous communities in order to guarantee access to all the territories of opportunities development and well-being. In decentralization, the central administration ensures the transfer of capacities to the regions with two essential objectives, which are equity and competitiveness.
Therefore, the definition of decentralization will be the transfer of powers from the State or central government to regional administrations. It implies providing the autonomous communities and states with a series of resources for their proper functioning, but above all to promote their development.
Characteristics of decentralization
Examples of decentralization include the transfer of health management from the central administration to the communities or any other service of interest in exchange for a sum of money. In this way the central organization would no longer be responsible for it. It can also be applied to other aspects such as infrastructure, education, social welfare or any other matter.
There are a number of characteristics that define decentralization:
- The central state provides a legal entity to the decentralized body.
- Transfer of competencies from the central administration to new legal or moral entities.
- It is endowed with its own assets and totally independent management, which will not have any type of connection with the central state.
- It works under the principle of autarky.
It should be noted that decentralization contributes to a quick and timely approach to decision-making, at the same time that it decongests a series of tasks that belong to the central administration and that will make territorial development possible.
The concept of decentralization continues to be quite controversial in some countries depending on the aspect it addresses.